Luna McNultyWords

Most Programming is UI

June 6, 2019

Most programming is just user interfaces.

By that, I don’t just mean that GUIs tend to be more code than any other part of a graphical application, although that’s probably true as well. Instead, I mean that most tasks involved in programming are forms of UI development.

We tend to think of the UI as a separate, and relatively unimportant, part of a program. There’s a core part, which solves a problem, and there’s a peripheral part, which exposes it to the user. We even use this language in systems when talking about the “kernel” vs the “shell.”

But there’s a flaw in this way of thinking: Most programs don’t solve any problems. They just make it easier to access solutions that already exist.

You probably already have a program on your computer that’s capable of solving almost any problem you care to name. Type python3 in your terminal and you’ll be greeted by a prompt through which you could in principle accomplish anything that’s computable and which gives you most of the algorithmic solutions through import statements. However, no one wants to edit their documents by typing calls to and f.write(), nor their images with direct calls to PIL. They’d rather use a text editor or a painting program. But ultimately those programs will still be calling similar functions, just with a superior interface.

There’s an infamous post on “Hacker News” in which a commenter responds to the announcement of Dropbox by questioning its usefulness when compared with:

“getting an FTP account, mounting it locally with curlftpfs, and then using SVN or CVS on the mounted filesystem”

And this person wasn’t exactly wrong. Dropbox wasn’t successful because it solved the problem of accessing files from different devices; The value was in making it easy.

The vast majority of code written today is accomplishing something similar. Think of how many developer-hours have been spent on CRUD apps which are effectively interfaces over MySQL/Postgres/Oracle/etc. It doesn’t matter whether it’s the front-end or the back-end: both are concerned mainly with organizing and transporting information such that it can be interacted with in a way simpler than typing out SQL queries.

There are certainly types of programming that I would not consider to be UI work. For example, programming a media codec is not UI work. But for every 1 codec implementation, there are about 1,000 media apps that access it.

Now, think about your own programming. How often do you personally solve an unsolved problem? By contrast, how often do you put together a more convenient way to handle an already-solved problem? Unless you have a PhD, I’m guessing that the latter is a lot more common.

“Hold on,” you might say, “I’m a back-end engineer. Even if I’m not inventing anything new, I don’t go anywhere near the UI.” To you I say this: think a little more broadly about what an interface is and who your users are. For example, have you ever written an API endpoint? What does the last word in “API” stand for again?

If you’re not writing interfaces for end-users, you’re writing interfaces for other programmers. You can take this idea as far down as you like. For example, consider the act of writing a function. Occasionally, you write one because you have a problem that is best dealt with through recursion, or whatever. However, just as often, you write a function so that you don’t have repeat the same steps at multiple points in the code. Maybe it’s for software engineering best practices, or maybe it’s to save yourself from repetitive stress injury: the point is, when you write a function, you do it to make programming easier. You are writing a UI for yourself.

But if we use the words “user interface” so broadly, aren’t we basically making the term useless? In a sense, yes. It would be kind of silly if all programmers started calling themselves UI developers. However, the point here is that it’s important to think about all of your code as an interface, not just a black box behind a front-end. Take the above example: when you write a function, you should think about its user experience. For example here are four user interfaces for the same function:

stroke(canvas, "red", 10, 10, 45, 45, 2);
stroke(canvas, 10, 45, 10, 45, "red", 2);
canvas.stroke({from: {x: 10, y: 10}, to: {x: 45, y: 45}, color: "red", width: 2})
stroke.from(10, 10).to(45, 45).colored("red").withWidth(2).on(canvas);

When you decide which of these you want to write, you should think about the question in terms of efficiency, predictability, discoverability, and the other principles of UI design. It doesn’t matter whether you’re working with pixels or sockets, toolbars or databases: as a programmer, you use your creativity to build something for other human beings. Don’t forget about them.